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Stock Markets (Know How)

"Stock Markets
They are still interpreted as "Panic Rooms" by many rational vertebrates of my kind.
Such is the fear, that it almost took 30 years of my life to enter this paradigm for real.
One fine morning, I got up from bed and refused to be feared any more and command my innerself  "let there be light"
And for the same reason, I want to share some of the enlightenment that I got with the help of our very own and respected, "The Omniscient and Omnipotent Baba Google".
Bolo Google Maharaj ki Jai.

So hereby listing some of the most important terms along with their basic definitions and concepts related to our virtual Panic Rooms. Hope it will be beneficial to everyone interested.


A Stock market is the market that people use to trade (buy or sell) shares, which are like small pieces of the company that a person can own.

The value of the share depends on how many people want to buy it and how many people are selling it. 
If many people want to buy a stock, the price will go up. If there are more sellers than buyers, the price will go down.

People usually trade shares in Stock market through a broker. A broker or stock broker is an agency which buys or sells stocks for their customers in the Stock market.


Major Stock Exchanges in India

  Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)
  National Stock Exchange (NSE)

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The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method

The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method Or The Minimum Cell Cost Method

The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method is a cost based approach to finding an initial solution to a transportation problem.
It makes allocations starting with the lowest shipping costs and moving in ascending order to satisfy the demands and supplies of all sources and destinations.

This straightforward approach uses the following steps.
Identify the cell with the lowest cost.Allocate as many units as possible to that cell without exceeding the supply or demand.Then cross out the row or column or both that is exhausted by the above assignment.Move on to the next lowest cost cell and allocate the remaining units.Repeat the above steps as long as all the demands and supplies are not satisfied. 
When we use the Intuitive Approach to the Bengal Plumbing problem, we obtain the solution as below.

Transportation Matrix for Bengal Plumbing From \ To Warehouse E Warehouse F Warehouse G Factory Capacity Plant A Rs.50
Rs.40 100 Rs.30 100 Plant…

Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM)

The Vogel's Approximation Method

In addition to the North West Corner and Intuitive Lowest Cost Methods for setting an initial solution to transportation problems, we can use another important technique - Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM).
Though VAM is not quite as simple as Northwest Corner approach, but it facilitates a very good initial solution, one that is often the optimal solution.
Vogel's Approximation Method tackles the problem of finding a good initial solution by taking into account the costs associated with each alternative route, which is something that Northwest Corner Rule did not do.

To apply VAM, we must first compute for each row and column the penalty faced if the second best route is selected instead of the least cost route.

To illustrate the same, we will look at the Bengal Plumbing transportation problem.

Transportation Matrix for Bengal Plumbing From \ To Warehouse E Warehouse F Warehouse G Factory Capacity Plant A
Rs.50
Rs.40
Rs.30 100 Plant B
Rs.80
Rs.

Gate Valve

A Gate Valve is also know as Sluice Valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/ wedge out of the path of the fluid.

Gate valves are primarily designed to start or stop flow, and when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum flow restriction are needed. In service, these valves generally are either fully open or fully closed.
Construction of a Gate ValveGate valves consists of three main parts: body, bonnet, and trim. The body is generally connected to other equipment by means of flanged, screwed or welded connections. The bonnet, which containing the moving parts, is attached to the body, usually with bolts, to permit maintenance. The valve trim consists of the stem, the gate, the disc or wedge and the seat rings.


Discs of Gate Valve
Gate valves are available with different disks or wedges.
The most common types of Discs are :
Solid Wedges Solid wedge is the most commonly used disk by its simplicity and strength. A valve with this type of wedge can be installed in e…