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NABARD

NABARD
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development


NABARD is the apex development bank in India, head quartered in Mumbai.
It was established in 12-July-1982 by a special act of parliament and its main focus was upliftment of rural India by increasing the credit flow for elevation of agriculture and rural non farm sector.

NABARD was established on the recommendations of Shivraman Committee, on 12-July-1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, 1981.
It is one of the premier agencies providing development credit in rural areas.

It replaced the Agriculture Credit Development (ACD) and Rural Planning and Credit Cell (RPCC) of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation (ARDC).

NABARD is the apex institution in the country which looks after the development of cottage industry, small industry and village industry and other rural industries.

NABARD's refinance is available to State Co-operative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (SCARDB), State Co-operative Banks (SCB), Regional, Rural Banks (RRB), Commercial Banks (CB) and other financial institution approved by RBI.  

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The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method

The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method Or The Minimum Cell Cost Method

The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method is a cost based approach to finding an initial solution to a transportation problem.
It makes allocations starting with the lowest shipping costs and moving in ascending order to satisfy the demands and supplies of all sources and destinations.

This straightforward approach uses the following steps.
Identify the cell with the lowest cost.Allocate as many units as possible to that cell without exceeding the supply or demand.Then cross out the row or column or both that is exhausted by the above assignment.Move on to the next lowest cost cell and allocate the remaining units.Repeat the above steps as long as all the demands and supplies are not satisfied. 
When we use the Intuitive Approach to the Bengal Plumbing problem, we obtain the solution as below.

Transportation Matrix for Bengal Plumbing From \ To Warehouse E Warehouse F Warehouse G Factory Capacity Plant A Rs.50
Rs.40 100 Rs.30 100 Plant…

Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM)

The Vogel's Approximation Method

In addition to the North West Corner and Intuitive Lowest Cost Methods for setting an initial solution to transportation problems, we can use another important technique - Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM).
Though VAM is not quite as simple as Northwest Corner approach, but it facilitates a very good initial solution, one that is often the optimal solution.
Vogel's Approximation Method tackles the problem of finding a good initial solution by taking into account the costs associated with each alternative route, which is something that Northwest Corner Rule did not do.

To apply VAM, we must first compute for each row and column the penalty faced if the second best route is selected instead of the least cost route.

To illustrate the same, we will look at the Bengal Plumbing transportation problem.

Transportation Matrix for Bengal Plumbing From \ To Warehouse E Warehouse F Warehouse G Factory Capacity Plant A
Rs.50
Rs.40
Rs.30 100 Plant B
Rs.80
Rs.

Oligopsony

Oligosony is a Market Form in which the number of buyers is small while number of sellers in theory could be large. This typically happens in a market where numerous suppliers are competing to sell their product to a small number of (often large & powerful) buyers. This allows buyers to exert a great deal of control over the sellers and can effectively drive down prices. An Oligopsony is a form of imperfect competition. It contrasts with Oligopoly, where there are many buyers but few sellers. However, Oligopsony tends to be just as prevalent in the real world. In fact, the firms operating as Oligopoly in an output market, also often operate as Oligopsony in an input market. Most of the standard analysis that applies to the Oligopoly also applies to the Oligopsony. When a small number of relatively large buyers dominate an industry , they tend to dominate most facets of the industry. The reason that the term Oligopsony is seldom used is that term Oligopoly usually covers the entir…