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Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)

Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)

BSE established in 1875 is Asia's first Stock Exchange. Over the past 137 years, BSE has facilitated the growth of the Indian corporate sector by providing it an efficient capital-raising platform.

BSE provides an efficient and transparent market for trading in equity, debt instruments, derivatives, mutual funds. It also has a platform for trading in equities of small and medium enterprises (SME).

More than 5000 companies are listed on BSE making it the World's No.1 exchange in terms of listed members. 
BSE also operates one of the most respected capital market education institutes in the country (The BSE Institute Ltd.)

BSE's popular equity index - "The S&P BSE Sensex" is India's most widely tracked stock market benchmark index. It is traded internationally on the EUREX as well as leading exchanges of the BRCS nations (Brazil, Russia, China, South Africa)

Sensex - Sensex refers to Sensitive Index and is generally associated with the BSE Stock Market Indices.

BSE Sensex is the stock market index of 30 well established and financially sound companies listed on BSE Ltd. The 30 component companies which are some of the largest and most actively traded stocks are representative of various industrial sectors of the Indian economy.

The BSE Sensex currently consists of the following 30 major Indian companies as of May-2013

Sr. No. Company Industry
1 Housing Development Finance Corporation Ltd. Consumer Finance
2 Cipla Ltd. Pharmaceuticals
3 Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. Electrical Equipments
4 State Bank of India Banking
5 Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd. Pharmaceuticals
6 HDFC Bank Ltd. Banking
7 Hero Motocorp Ltd. Automotive
8 Infosys Ltd. Information Technology
9 Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. Oil & Gas
10 Reliance Industries Ltd. Oil & Gas
11 Tata Power Company Ltd. Power
12 Hindalco Industries Ltd. Metals & Mining
13 Tata Steel Ltd. Steel
14 Larsen & Toubro Ltd. Conglomerate
15 Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. Automotive
16 Tata Motors Ltd. Automotive
17 Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Consumer Goods
18 ITC Ltd. Conglomerate
19 Sterlite Industries (India) Ltd. Metals & Mining
20 Wipro Ltd. Information Technology
21 Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Pharmaceuticals
22 Gail (India) Ltd. Oil & Gas
23 ICICI Bank Ltd. Banking
24 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. Steel & Power
25 Bharti Airtel Ltd. Telecommunication
26 Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. Automotive
27 Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. Information Technology
28 NTPC Ltd. Power
29 Bajaj Auto Ltd. Automotive
30 Coal India Ltd. Metals & Mining

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The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method

The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method Or The Minimum Cell Cost Method

The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method is a cost based approach to finding an initial solution to a transportation problem.
It makes allocations starting with the lowest shipping costs and moving in ascending order to satisfy the demands and supplies of all sources and destinations.

This straightforward approach uses the following steps.
Identify the cell with the lowest cost.Allocate as many units as possible to that cell without exceeding the supply or demand.Then cross out the row or column or both that is exhausted by the above assignment.Move on to the next lowest cost cell and allocate the remaining units.Repeat the above steps as long as all the demands and supplies are not satisfied. 
When we use the Intuitive Approach to the Bengal Plumbing problem, we obtain the solution as below.

Transportation Matrix for Bengal Plumbing From \ To Warehouse E Warehouse F Warehouse G Factory Capacity Plant A Rs.50
Rs.40 100 Rs.30 100 Plant…

Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM)

The Vogel's Approximation Method

In addition to the North West Corner and Intuitive Lowest Cost Methods for setting an initial solution to transportation problems, we can use another important technique - Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM).
Though VAM is not quite as simple as Northwest Corner approach, but it facilitates a very good initial solution, one that is often the optimal solution.
Vogel's Approximation Method tackles the problem of finding a good initial solution by taking into account the costs associated with each alternative route, which is something that Northwest Corner Rule did not do.

To apply VAM, we must first compute for each row and column the penalty faced if the second best route is selected instead of the least cost route.

To illustrate the same, we will look at the Bengal Plumbing transportation problem.

Transportation Matrix for Bengal Plumbing From \ To Warehouse E Warehouse F Warehouse G Factory Capacity Plant A
Rs.30 100 Plant B


Oligosony is a Market Form in which the number of buyers is small while number of sellers in theory could be large. This typically happens in a market where numerous suppliers are competing to sell their product to a small number of (often large & powerful) buyers. This allows buyers to exert a great deal of control over the sellers and can effectively drive down prices. An Oligopsony is a form of imperfect competition. It contrasts with Oligopoly, where there are many buyers but few sellers. However, Oligopsony tends to be just as prevalent in the real world. In fact, the firms operating as Oligopoly in an output market, also often operate as Oligopsony in an input market. Most of the standard analysis that applies to the Oligopoly also applies to the Oligopsony. When a small number of relatively large buyers dominate an industry , they tend to dominate most facets of the industry. The reason that the term Oligopsony is seldom used is that term Oligopoly usually covers the entir…