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Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)

Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)

BSE established in 1875 is Asia's first Stock Exchange. Over the past 137 years, BSE has facilitated the growth of the Indian corporate sector by providing it an efficient capital-raising platform.

BSE provides an efficient and transparent market for trading in equity, debt instruments, derivatives, mutual funds. It also has a platform for trading in equities of small and medium enterprises (SME).

More than 5000 companies are listed on BSE making it the World's No.1 exchange in terms of listed members. 
BSE also operates one of the most respected capital market education institutes in the country (The BSE Institute Ltd.)

BSE's popular equity index - "The S&P BSE Sensex" is India's most widely tracked stock market benchmark index. It is traded internationally on the EUREX as well as leading exchanges of the BRCS nations (Brazil, Russia, China, South Africa)

Sensex - Sensex refers to Sensitive Index and is generally associated with the BSE Stock Market Indices.

BSE Sensex is the stock market index of 30 well established and financially sound companies listed on BSE Ltd. The 30 component companies which are some of the largest and most actively traded stocks are representative of various industrial sectors of the Indian economy.

The BSE Sensex currently consists of the following 30 major Indian companies as of May-2013

Sr. No. Company Industry
1 Housing Development Finance Corporation Ltd. Consumer Finance
2 Cipla Ltd. Pharmaceuticals
3 Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. Electrical Equipments
4 State Bank of India Banking
5 Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd. Pharmaceuticals
6 HDFC Bank Ltd. Banking
7 Hero Motocorp Ltd. Automotive
8 Infosys Ltd. Information Technology
9 Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. Oil & Gas
10 Reliance Industries Ltd. Oil & Gas
11 Tata Power Company Ltd. Power
12 Hindalco Industries Ltd. Metals & Mining
13 Tata Steel Ltd. Steel
14 Larsen & Toubro Ltd. Conglomerate
15 Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. Automotive
16 Tata Motors Ltd. Automotive
17 Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Consumer Goods
18 ITC Ltd. Conglomerate
19 Sterlite Industries (India) Ltd. Metals & Mining
20 Wipro Ltd. Information Technology
21 Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Pharmaceuticals
22 Gail (India) Ltd. Oil & Gas
23 ICICI Bank Ltd. Banking
24 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. Steel & Power
25 Bharti Airtel Ltd. Telecommunication
26 Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. Automotive
27 Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. Information Technology
28 NTPC Ltd. Power
29 Bajaj Auto Ltd. Automotive
30 Coal India Ltd. Metals & Mining



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The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method

The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method Or The Minimum Cell Cost Method

The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method is a cost based approach to finding an initial solution to a transportation problem.
It makes allocations starting with the lowest shipping costs and moving in ascending order to satisfy the demands and supplies of all sources and destinations.

This straightforward approach uses the following steps.
Identify the cell with the lowest cost.Allocate as many units as possible to that cell without exceeding the supply or demand.Then cross out the row or column or both that is exhausted by the above assignment.Move on to the next lowest cost cell and allocate the remaining units.Repeat the above steps as long as all the demands and supplies are not satisfied. 
When we use the Intuitive Approach to the Bengal Plumbing problem, we obtain the solution as below.

Transportation Matrix for Bengal Plumbing From \ To Warehouse E Warehouse F Warehouse G Factory Capacity Plant A Rs.50
Rs.40 100 Rs.30 100 Plant…

Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM)

The Vogel's Approximation Method

In addition to the North West Corner and Intuitive Lowest Cost Methods for setting an initial solution to transportation problems, we can use another important technique - Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM).
Though VAM is not quite as simple as Northwest Corner approach, but it facilitates a very good initial solution, one that is often the optimal solution.
Vogel's Approximation Method tackles the problem of finding a good initial solution by taking into account the costs associated with each alternative route, which is something that Northwest Corner Rule did not do.

To apply VAM, we must first compute for each row and column the penalty faced if the second best route is selected instead of the least cost route.

To illustrate the same, we will look at the Bengal Plumbing transportation problem.

Transportation Matrix for Bengal Plumbing From \ To Warehouse E Warehouse F Warehouse G Factory Capacity Plant A
Rs.50
Rs.40
Rs.30 100 Plant B
Rs.80
Rs.

Gate Valve

A Gate Valve is also know as Sluice Valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/ wedge out of the path of the fluid.

Gate valves are primarily designed to start or stop flow, and when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum flow restriction are needed. In service, these valves generally are either fully open or fully closed.
Construction of a Gate ValveGate valves consists of three main parts: body, bonnet, and trim. The body is generally connected to other equipment by means of flanged, screwed or welded connections. The bonnet, which containing the moving parts, is attached to the body, usually with bolts, to permit maintenance. The valve trim consists of the stem, the gate, the disc or wedge and the seat rings.


Discs of Gate Valve
Gate valves are available with different disks or wedges.
The most common types of Discs are :
Solid Wedges Solid wedge is the most commonly used disk by its simplicity and strength. A valve with this type of wedge can be installed in e…