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National Stock Exchange (NSE)

National Stock Exchange (NSE)

NSE the 11th largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization and largest in India by daily turnover and number of trades for both equities and derivatives is located in Mumbai. NSE and BSE are the two most significant stock exchanges in India.

The National Stock Exchange was set up by Government of India on the recommendation of Pherwani Committee in 1991.
Promoted by leading financial institutions essentially led by IDBI at the behest of Government of India, it was incorporated in November 1992 as a tax paying company.

In April 1993, it was recognized as a Stock Exchange under "Securities Contracts Regulations Act, 1956".

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) operates a nationwide, electronic market offering trading in Capital Market, Derivatives Market and Currency Derivatives segments including equities, ETFs, Retain Government Securities.
NSE currently has about 1400 companies listed with it.

S&P CNX Nifty

NSE's Key Index the "S&P CNX Nifty" is an index of fifty major stocks weighted by market capitalization.
It is a benchmark index for Indian Equity Market.

Nifty is owned and managed by India Index Services & Products Ltd. (IISL), which is a joint venture between NSE and CRISIL (Credit Rating & Information Services of India Ltd.).

IISL is India's first specialised company focussed upon the Index as a core product.
IISL has a marketing and licensing agreement with "Standard & Poor's" for co-branding equity indices.

CNX in its name stands for 'CRISIL NSE Index'.
The CNX Nifty covers 22 sectors of Indian economy and offers investment managers exposure to Indian market in one portfolio.

The NIFTY currently consists of the following 30 major Indian companies as of May-2013


Sr. No. Company Name Industry
1 ACC Ltd. CEMENT AND CEMENT PRODUCTS
2 Ambuja Cements Ltd. CEMENT AND CEMENT PRODUCTS
3 Asian Paints Ltd. PAINTS
4 Axis Bank Ltd. BANKS
5 Bajaj Auto Ltd. AUTOMOBILES - 2 AND 3 WHEELERS
6 Bank of Baroda BANKS
7 Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
8 Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. REFINERIES
9 Bharti Airtel Ltd. TELECOMMUNICATION - SERVICES
10 Cairn India Ltd. OIL EXPLORATION/PRODUCTION
11 Cipla Ltd. PHARMACEUTICALS
12 Coal India Ltd. MINING
13 DLF Ltd. CONSTRUCTION
14 Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd. PHARMACEUTICALS
15 GAIL (India) Ltd. GAS
16 Grasim Industries Ltd. CEMENT AND CEMENT PRODUCTS
17 HCL Technologies Ltd. COMPUTERS - SOFTWARE
18 HDFC Bank Ltd. BANKS
19 Hero MotoCorp Ltd. AUTOMOBILES - 2 AND 3 WHEELERS
20 Hindalco Industries Ltd. ALUMINIUM
21 Hindustan Unilever Ltd. DIVERSIFIED
22 Housing Development Finance Corporation Ltd. FINANCE - HOUSING
23 I T C Ltd. CIGARETTES
24 ICICI Bank Ltd. BANKS
25 IDFC Ltd. FINANCIAL INSTITUTION
26 IndusInd Bank Ltd. BANKS
27 Infosys Ltd. COMPUTERS - SOFTWARE
28 Jaiprakash Associates Ltd. CONSTRUCTION
29 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. STEEL AND STEEL PRODUCTS
30 Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd. BANKS
31 Larsen & Toubro Ltd. ENGINEERING
32 Lupin Ltd. PHARMACEUTICALS
33 Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. AUTOMOBILES - 4 WHEELERS
34 Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. AUTOMOBILES - 4 WHEELERS
35 NMDC Ltd. MINING
36 NTPC Ltd. POWER
37 Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. OIL EXPLORATION/PRODUCTION
38 Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. POWER
39 Punjab National Bank BANKS
40 Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd. PHARMACEUTICALS
41 Reliance Industries Ltd. REFINERIES
42 Reliance Infrastructure Ltd. POWER
43 Sesa Goa Ltd. MINING
44 State Bank of India BANKS
45 Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. PHARMACEUTICALS
46 Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. COMPUTERS - SOFTWARE
47 Tata Motors Ltd. AUTOMOBILES - 4 WHEELERS
48 Tata Power Co. Ltd. POWER
49 Tata Steel Ltd. STEEL AND STEEL PRODUCTS
50 UltraTech Cement Ltd. CEMENT AND CEMENT PRODUCTS
  

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The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method

The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method Or The Minimum Cell Cost Method

The Intuitive Lowest Cost Method is a cost based approach to finding an initial solution to a transportation problem.
It makes allocations starting with the lowest shipping costs and moving in ascending order to satisfy the demands and supplies of all sources and destinations.

This straightforward approach uses the following steps.
Identify the cell with the lowest cost.Allocate as many units as possible to that cell without exceeding the supply or demand.Then cross out the row or column or both that is exhausted by the above assignment.Move on to the next lowest cost cell and allocate the remaining units.Repeat the above steps as long as all the demands and supplies are not satisfied. 
When we use the Intuitive Approach to the Bengal Plumbing problem, we obtain the solution as below.

Transportation Matrix for Bengal Plumbing From \ To Warehouse E Warehouse F Warehouse G Factory Capacity Plant A Rs.50
Rs.40 100 Rs.30 100 Plant…

Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM)

The Vogel's Approximation Method

In addition to the North West Corner and Intuitive Lowest Cost Methods for setting an initial solution to transportation problems, we can use another important technique - Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM).
Though VAM is not quite as simple as Northwest Corner approach, but it facilitates a very good initial solution, one that is often the optimal solution.
Vogel's Approximation Method tackles the problem of finding a good initial solution by taking into account the costs associated with each alternative route, which is something that Northwest Corner Rule did not do.

To apply VAM, we must first compute for each row and column the penalty faced if the second best route is selected instead of the least cost route.

To illustrate the same, we will look at the Bengal Plumbing transportation problem.

Transportation Matrix for Bengal Plumbing From \ To Warehouse E Warehouse F Warehouse G Factory Capacity Plant A
Rs.50
Rs.40
Rs.30 100 Plant B
Rs.80
Rs.

Gate Valve

A Gate Valve is also know as Sluice Valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/ wedge out of the path of the fluid.

Gate valves are primarily designed to start or stop flow, and when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum flow restriction are needed. In service, these valves generally are either fully open or fully closed.
Construction of a Gate ValveGate valves consists of three main parts: body, bonnet, and trim. The body is generally connected to other equipment by means of flanged, screwed or welded connections. The bonnet, which containing the moving parts, is attached to the body, usually with bolts, to permit maintenance. The valve trim consists of the stem, the gate, the disc or wedge and the seat rings.


Discs of Gate Valve
Gate valves are available with different disks or wedges.
The most common types of Discs are :
Solid Wedges Solid wedge is the most commonly used disk by its simplicity and strength. A valve with this type of wedge can be installed in e…